The properties of metallic systems with important and structured excitations at low energies, such as Cu, are challenging to describe with simple models like the plasmon pole approximation (PPA), and more accurate and sometimes prohibitive full frequency approaches are usually required. In this paper we propose a numerical approach to GW calculations on metals that takes into account the frequency dependence of the screening via the multipole approximation (MPA), an accurate and efficient alternative to current full frequency methods that was recently developed and validated for semiconductors and overcomes several limitations of PPA. We now demonstrate that MPA can be successfully extended to metallic systems by optimizing the frequency sampling for this class of materials and introducing a simple method to include the long-wavelength limit of the intraband contributions. The good agreement between MPA and full frequency results for the calculations of quasiparticle energies, polarizability, self-energy, and spectral functions in different metallic systems confirms the accuracy and computational efficiency of the method. Finally, we discuss the physical interpretation of the MPA poles through a comparison with experimental electron energy loss spectra for Cu.

D. A. Leon, A. Ferretti, D. Varsano, E. Molinari, and C. Cardoso, Efficient full frequency GW for metals using a multipole approach for the dielectric screening, Phys. Rev. B 107, 155130 (2023)

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.155130